Cosmopolitan Human Right
As Hegel writes in his philosophy of law:
"Law is something sacred",
obviously not in the sense that its origin is divine, but in the sense that it enables the peaceful coexistence of humans and thus allows for what we call ’civilisation’. One could also say that law is something sacred in a superhuman, but not in a divine sense. There is a higher spirituality that unites all people. Through this spirituality, people can communicate with each other, pass on knowledge and thus change the conditions of life. This knowledge is passed on to the following generations, who therefore start from a better position than the previous generations. According to Hegel, it is this spirituality that extends through the different generations and peoples that should be regarded as something sacred - in an immanent and non-transcendent sense.
Law is the realisation of politics, i.e. politics, which consists of passion, reason, discussion and power struggle, receives its own objective existence through legislation. By that, law makes politics become real. Politics, in turn, is not only driven by power struggles but also by ideals, by different concepts of the state, which compete for power and thus for the possibility of legislation. That is why, in the end, law is not only the realisation of politics, but also the realisation of philosophy, of thinking. In this sense, law is something sacred because thinking is exactly what is sacred in humanity.
Law realised by politics is the "living good", i.e. not the abstract, unrealised good desired by good humans but the good that has found its realisation in history. The living good is always less than the abstract good, which strives for ideal perfection. This abstract good remains as a wish in the subjects but has no real life. The good realised in law and morals, however, is alive, active; it is the objective reality that governs the life of people. Although it is always inferior to the idealised and desired good, at the same time it is superior to it precisely because it is realised and not only desired.
According to the perspective of the world state, which should be considered the new paradigm of the society of the future, law will obviously be a world law, that is a cosmopolitan law. This includes human rights as well as animal rights, since animals also have their own rights as living subjects. They have the right, for example, not to be regarded merely as material objects that humans can dispose of at will.
In the world state there will also be a cosmopolitan environmental law concerning non-human beings, which have their own order and their own balanced structure. This order of nature makes the life of animals and humans on planet earth possible.
It would therefore be a serious mistake to separate the objective, material world from the subjective animal and human world, since the former is the indispensable prerequisite for the latter. These are two areas of the same substance, namely the universe in its evolution, as we know today from the results of both empirical science and natural philosophy.
It is therefore impossible to think of a human and animal right which is not itself based on environmental law because if humans do something that harms the environment by not granting it an autonomous right, then human and animal rights are also at risk. For example, how can we ensure clean water and clean air for a population if we do not recognise the right of planet Earth to maintain its various substances in the necessary physical, chemical and biological conditions? These conditions were not created by us humans, but by nature itself.
Therefore, even in the case of the environment, law is something "sacred", since there is an authority superior to humankind, immanent and non-transcendent to nature, maintaining the order and harmony of the cosmos and the conditions that life, and therefore also humankind, could not exist without.
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